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Title: Cigarette smoking increases the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma through the elevated level of IgA antibody against Epstein-Barr virus capsid antigen: A mediation analysis.
Authors: Hsu WL,  Chien YC,  Huang YT,  Yu KJ,  Ko JY,  Lin CY,  Tsou YA,  Leu YS,  Liao LJ,  Chang YL,  Su JY,  Liu Z,  Wang CP,  Terng SD,  Hua CH,  Lee JC,  Yang TL,  Kate Hsiao CH,  Wu MS,  Tsai MH,  Liu MJ,  Lou PJ,  Hildesheim A,  Chen CJ,  GEV-NPC Study Group
Journal: Cancer Med
Date: 2020 Mar
Branches: IIB
PubMed ID: 31925935
PMC ID: PMC7050088
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The study aims are to evaluate the associations between nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) risk and cigarette smoking and to explore the effects of cigarette smoking on Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection for NPC risk. METHODS: 1235 male NPC cases and 1262 hospital-based male controls matched to cases were recruited across six collaborative hospitals between 2010 and 2014. Using a standardized questionnaire, information on cigarette smoking and other potential risk factors for NPC was obtained. Blood was collected and used for anti-EBV VCA IgA and anti-EBV EA-EBNA1 IgA testing using standard methods. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for each risk factor after adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: 63.6% of cases and 44.0% of controls reported ever smoking cigarettes. After full adjustment, current smokers had a significant 1.60-fold (95% CI = 1.30-1.97) and former smokers a borderline significant 1.27-fold (95% CI = 1.00-1.60) increased NPC risk compared to never smokers. NPC risk increased with increasing duration, intensity, and pack-years of cigarette smoking but not with age at smoking initiation. Among controls, anti-EBV VCA IgA seropositivity rate was higher in current smokers than never smokers (14.0% vs 8.4%; OR = 1.82; 95% CI = 1.19-2.79). Mediation analyses showed that more than 90% of the cigarette smoking effect on NPC risk is mediated through anti-EBV VCA IgA. CONCLUSION: This study confirms the association between long-term cigarette smoking and NPC and demonstrates that current smoking is associated with seropositivity of anti-EBV VCA IgA antibodies.