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Title: Reduced prevalence of vulvar HPV16/18 infection among women who received the HPV16/18 bivalent vaccine: a nested analysis within the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial.
Authors: Lang Kuhs KA,  Gonzalez P,  Rodriguez AC,  van Doorn LJ,  Schiffman M,  Struijk L,  Chen S,  Quint W,  Lowy DR,  Porras C,  DelVecchio C,  Jimenez S,  Safaeian M,  Schiller JT,  Wacholder S,  Herrero R,  Hildesheim A,  Kreimer AR,  Costa Rica Vaccine Trial Group
Journal: J Infect Dis
Date: 2014 Dec 15
Branches: BB, CGB, IIB
PubMed ID: 24958910
PMC ID: PMC4271025
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Vaccine efficacy (VE) against vulvar human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has not been reported and data regarding its epidemiology are sparse. METHODS: Women (n = 5404) age 22-29 present at the 4-year study visit of the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial provided vulvar and cervical samples. A subset (n = 1044) was tested for HPV DNA (SPF10/LiPA25 version 1). VE against 1-time detection of vulvar HPV16/18 among HPV vaccinated versus unvaccinated women was calculated and compared to the cervix. Prevalence of and risk factors for HPV were evaluated in the control arm (n = 536). RESULTS: Vulvar HPV16/18 VE (54.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.9%-79.1%) was comparable to cervix (45.8%; 95% CI, 6.4%-69.4%). Vulvar and cervical HPV16 prevalence within the control arm was 3.0% and 4.7%, respectively. Independent risk factors for vulvar HPV were similar to cervix and included: age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.5 [95% CI, .3-.9] ≥28 vs 22-23]); marital status (aOR 2.3 [95% CI, 1.5-3.5] single vs married/living-as-married); and number of sexual partners (aOR 3.6 [95% CI, 1.9-7.0] ≥6 vs 1). CONCLUSIONS: In this intention-to-treat analysis, VE against vulvar and cervical HPV16/18 were comparable 4 years following vaccination. Risk factors for HPV were similar by anatomic site. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT00128661.