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||A prospective study of lycopene and tomato product intake and risk of prostate cancer.
||Kirsh VA, Mayne ST, Peters U, Chatterjee N, Leitzmann MF, Dixon LB, Urban DA, Crawford ED, Hayes RB
||Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev
||BB, MEB, OEEB
||BACKGROUND: Dietary lycopene and tomato products may reduce risk of prostate cancer; however, uncertainty remains about this possible association. METHODS: We evaluated the association between intake of lycopene and specific tomato products and prostate cancer risk in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, a multicenter study designed to investigate cancer early detection methods and etiologic determinants. Participants completed both a general risk factor and a 137-item food frequency questionnaire at baseline. A total of 1,338 cases of prostate cancer were identified among 29,361 men during an average of 4.2 years of follow-up. RESULTS: Lycopene intake was not associated with prostate cancer risk. Reduced risks were also not found for total tomato servings or for most tomato-based foods. Statistically nonsignificant inverse associations were noted for pizza [all prostate cancer: relative risk (RR), 0.83; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.67-1.03 for >or=1 serving/wk versus < 0.5 serving/mo; P(trend)=0.06 and advanced prostate cancer: RR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.56-1.10; P(trend)=0.12] and spaghetti/tomato sauce consumption (advanced prostate cancer: RR=0.81, 95% CI, 0.57-1.16 for >or=2 servings/wk versus<1 serving/mo; P(trend)=0.31). Among men with a family history of prostate cancer, risks were decreased in relation to increased consumption of lycopene (P(trend)=0.04) and specific tomato-based foods commonly eaten with fat (spaghetti, P(trend)=0.12; pizza, P(trend)=0.15; lasagna, P(trend)=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: This large study does not support the hypothesis that greater lycopene/tomato product consumption protects from prostate cancer. Evidence for protective associations in subjects with a family history of prostate cancer requires further corroboration.