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||Bone cancers in Mayak workers.
||Koshurnikova NA, Gilbert ES, Sokolnikov M, Khokhryakov VF, Miller S, Preston DL, Romanov SA, Shilnikova NS, Suslova KG, Vostrotin VV
||Bone cancer mortality risks were evaluated in 11,000 workers who started working at the "Mayak" Production Association in 1948-1958 and who were exposed to both internally deposited plutonium and external gamma radiation. Comparisons with Russian and U.S. general population rates indicate excess mortality, especially among females, plutonium plant workers, and workers with external doses exceeding 1 Sv. Comparisons within the Mayak worker cohort, which evaluate the role of plutonium body burden with adjustment for cumulative external dose, indicate excess mortality among workers with burdens estimated to exceed 7.4 kBq (relative risk = 7.9; 95% CI = 1.6-32) and among workers in the plutonium plant who did not have routine plutonium monitoring data based on urine measurements (relative risk = 4.1; 95% CI = 1.2-14). In addition, analyses treating the estimated plutonium body burden as a continuous variable indicate increasing risk with increasing burden (P < 0.001). Because of limitations in current plutonium dosimetry, no attempt was made to quantify bone cancer risks from plutonium in terms of organ dose, and risk from external dose could not be reliably evaluated.