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||Lung cancer and indoor air pollution in rural china.
||Kleinerman R, Wang Z, Lubin J, Zhang S, Metayer C, Brenner A
||2000 Oct 1
||BB, CGR, REB
||PURPOSE: Indoor air pollution has been linked with lung cancer in China. In contrast to previous studies conducted in urban areas with high levels of industrial pollution, we undertook a lung cancer case-control study in a rural area of China, where residents live in underground dwellings. We evaluated the effects of radon, wood and coal combustion, cooking oil fumes, and environmental tobacco smoke on lung cancer risk.METHODS: We enrolled 886 lung cancer cases (656 males, 230 females) diagnosed between 1994-98, aged 30-75 years and 1765 frequency matched population-based controls from two prefectures in Gansu Province in Northwestern China. We conducted interviews with subjects or next of kin on smoking, housing characteristics, fuel use and cooking practices. Year-long radon detectors were placed in current and former homes of subjects.RESULTS: Subjects primarily used coal (22%), wood (56%) or a combination of both (22%) for heating. Odds Ratios (OR) for lung cancer rose with increasing percent of time that coal was used to heat homes over the past 30 years (ORs = 1.00, 1.17, 1.35, 1.23 compared to wood only, adjusted to smoking, P for trend = 0.025). Among non-smoking females and males, the OR for ever exposed to environmental tobacco smoke was 1.19, 95% CI = 0.7-2.0 with a significant trend for increasing years of exposure. Fumes from cooking with rapeseed oil increased the risk of lung cancer (OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.0-2.5) among non-smoking women. Among these women, occasional and frequent eye and throat irritation during cooking appeared to be associated with increased risk of lung cancer (ORs = 1.00, 1.42, 2.28, p trend < 0.01), whereas, increasing level of smokiness during cooking did not appear to affect risk.CONCLUSIONS: There is a suggestion that coal used for heating, environmental tobacco smoke, and cooking oil fumes contribute to the risk of lung cancer in this rural area of China.