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||Polymorphisms in glutathione-S-transferase genes (GST-M1, GST-T1 and GST-P1) and susceptibility to prostate cancer among male smokers of the ATBC cancer prevention study.
||Kidd LC, Woodson K, Taylor PR, Albanes D, Virtamo J, Tangrea JA
||Eur J Cancer Prev
||Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) genes encode a family of detoxification enzymes that offer protection against endogenous and exogenous sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Germline variations in GST genes may alter the catalytic efficiency of GST isoenzymes leading to a potential increase in susceptibility to the genotoxic effects of ROS and electrophilic substances. A nested case-control study design was used to examine the association between the polymorphic GST genes and prostate cancer risk among Finnish male smokers of the ATBC Cancer Prevention Study. A case-case analysis was used to determine the association between these genetic polymorphisms and prostate cancer progression. Germline DNA was obtained from 206 prostate cancer cases and 194 controls frequency matched on age, intervention group and study clinic. Cases and controls were genotyped for three GST genes using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry or multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Relative to the wild-type genotype, we observed a 36% reduction in prostate cancer risk associated with the GST-M1-null genotype (odds ratio (OR) 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.43, 0.95). Unlike GST-M1, GST-T1-null (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.42, 1.33) and GST-P1*B (OR 1.10, 95% CI 0.72, 1.69) were not strongly associated with prostate cancer risk. We did not observe any significant associations between the selected polymorphic GST genes and tumour grade or stage. In conclusion, we did not observe a direct association between polymorphic GST-T1 or GST-P1 and prostate cancer risk. Our observation of a relatively strong inverse association between the GST-M1-null genotype and prostate cancer risk needs to be confirmed in larger association studies.