||Joshi N, Johnson LL, Wei WQ, Abnet CC, Dong ZW, Taylor PR, Limburg PJ, Dawsey SM, Hawk ET, Qiao YL, Kirsch IR
||A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled 2 x 2 factorial chemoprevention trial was conducted in Linxian, China to assess the effects of selenomethionine and celecoxib on the natural history of esophageal squamous dysplasia. Results from this study indicated that asymptomatic adults with mild dysplasia were more likely to show an improvement when treated with selenomethionine compared with placebo (P = 0.02). Prompted by this finding, we examined the molecular profiles associated with regression and progression of dysplastic lesions in normal mucosa from 29 individuals, a subset of the Linxian cohort, using the Affymetrix U133A chip. Twenty differentially expressed genes were associated with regression and 129 were associated with progression when we compared the change in gene expression over time. Genes associated with immune response (n = 15), cell cycle (n = 15), metabolism (n = 15), calcium transport or calcium ion activity (n = 10), regulation of transcription (n = 9), signal transduction (n = 7), cytoskeleton and microtubules (n = 5), nucleotide processing and biosynthesis (n = 4), G-coupled signaling (n = 4), and apoptosis (n = 3) were present in the list of 149 genes. Using the Expression Analysis Systematic Explorer pathway analysis program, only the immune response pathway was significantly overrepresented among these 149 genes. Individuals whose lesions regressed seemed to have higher expression of genes associated with immune stimulation, such as antigen presentation, survival of T cells, and T-cell activation (HLA-DRA, HLA-DPA1, HLA-DBQ1, CD58, and FCER1A). In contrast, individuals whose lesions progressed had higher expression of genes involved in immune suppression and inflammation (CNR2, NFATC4, NFRKB, MBP, INHBB, CMKLR1, CRP, ORMS, SERPINA7, and SERPINA1). These data suggest that local and systemic immune responses may influence the natural history of esophageal squamous dysplasia.