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||Flavonol and flavone intake and the risk of intermittent claudication in male smokers.
||Hirvonen T, Törnwall ME, Pietinen P, Korhonen P, Albanes D, Virtamo J
||Eur J Epidemiol
||The objective of this study was to investigate the association between flavonol and flavone intake and the risk of intermittent claudication in male smokers. The study population consisted of participants of the Finnish alpha-Tocopherol, beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study, who were free of intermittent claudication at study entry. These 25,041 male smokers were 50-69 years old at baseline. Participants completed a validated dietary questionnaire at baseline. The occurrence of intermittent claudication was assessed by annual administration of the Rose questionnaire. During the median follow-up of 4.1 years, 2412 new cases of intermittent claudication were observed. Dietary intake of flavonols and flavones was inversely associated with the risk of intermittent claudication when adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors (relative risk, RR in the highest vs. lowest quintile of intake 0.86, 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.75-0.98, p for trend 0.007). However, after further adjustment for intakes of vitamins C and E and total carotenoids, the association was attenuated (RR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.81-1.08, p for trend 0.12). The risk of intermittent claudication was lower among men in the highest quintile of vegetable consumption (RR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.69-0.89, p for trend 0.0001) and among wine drinkers (RR: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.41-0.98). Adjustment for flavonol and flavone intake only marginally changed these associations. In conclusion, flavonol and flavone intake was not independently associated with the risk of intermittent claudication.