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||Dietary carotenoids, serum beta-carotene, and retinol and risk of lung cancer in the alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene cohort study.
||Holick CN, Michaud DS, Stolzenberg-Solomon R, Mayne ST, Pietinen P, Taylor PR, Virtamo J, Albanes D
||Am J Epidemiol
||2002 Sep 15
||Findings from several beta-carotene supplementation trials were unexpected and conflicted with most observational studies. Carotenoids other than beta-carotene are found in a variety of fruits and vegetables and may play a role in this important malignancy, but previous findings regarding the five major carotenoids are inconsistent. The authors analyzed the associations between dietary beta-carotene, beta-carotene, lutein/zeaxanthin, lycopene, beta-cryptoxanthin, vitamin A, serum beta-carotene, and serum retinol and the lung cancer risk in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study cohort of male smokers conducted in southwestern Finland between 1985 and 1993. Of the 27,084 male smokers aged 50-69 years who completed the 276-food item dietary questionnaire at baseline, 1,644 developed lung cancer during up to 14 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. Consumption of fruits and vegetables was associated with a lower lung cancer risk (relative risk = 0.73, 95% confidence interval: 0.62, 0.86, highest vs. lowest quintile). Lower risks of lung cancer were observed for the highest versus the lowest quintiles of lycopene (28%), lutein/zeaxanthin (17%), beta-cryptoxanthin (15%), total carotenoids (16%), serum beta-carotene (19%), and serum retinol (27%). These findings suggest that high fruit and vegetable consumption, particularly a diet rich in carotenoids, tomatoes, and tomato-based products, may reduce the risk of lung cancer.