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Title: Cancer risk after iodine-131 therapy for hyperthyroidism.
Authors: Holm LE,  Hall P,  Wiklund K,  Lundell G,  Berg G,  Bjelkengren G,  Cederquist E,  Ericsson UB,  Hallquist A,  Larsson LG
Journal: J Natl Cancer Inst
Date: 1991 Aug 7
Branches: REB
PubMed ID: 1875414
PMC ID: not available
Abstract: Cancer incidence was studied in 10,552 patients (mean age, 57 years) who received 131I therapy (mean dose, 506 MBq) for hyperthyroidism between 1950 and 1975. Follow-up on these patients was continued for an average of 15 years. Record linkage with the Swedish Cancer Register for the period 1958-1985 identified 1543 cancers occurring 1 year or more after 131I treatment, and the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was 1.06 (95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.11). Significantly increased SIRs were observed for cancers of the lung (SIR = 1.32; n = 105) and kidney (SIR = 1.39; n = 66). Among 10-year survivors, significantly elevated risks were seen for cancers of the stomach (SIR = 1.33; n = 58), kidney (SIR = 1.51; n = 37), and brain (SIR = 1.63; n = 30). Only the risk for stomach cancer, however, increased over time (P less than .05) and with increasing activity administered (P = not significant). The risk for malignant lymphoma was significantly below expectation (SIR = 0.53; n = 11). Overall cancer risk did not increase with administered 131I dose or with time since exposure. The absence of any increase in leukemia adds further support to the view that a radiation dose delivered gradually over time is less carcinogenic than the same total dose received over a short time. Only for stomach cancer was a possible radiogenic excess suggested.