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||Occupational risk factors for multiple myeloma among Danish men.
||Heineman EF, Olsen JH, Pottern LM, Gomez M, Raffn E, Blair A
||Cancer Causes Control
||A large population-based case-control study evaluated occupational exposures in 1,098 Danish males diagnosed with multiple myeloma from 1970 to 1984 and in 4,169 age- and gender-matched controls alive at the time of case-diagnosis. Industrial histories were obtained from the Supplementary Pension Fund which, since 1964, has recorded employments of adult Danes; occupation came from subjects' most recent tax records. Four industrial hygienists created a job-exposure matrix for 47 substances based on 15,000 unique industry/occupation combinations in subjects' histories. Risk of myeloma was significantly elevated among road and railroad workers, precision metalworkers, and workers in the transportation and communication industries. Risk increased significantly with duration of employment in: production of synthetic yarns, plastic packaging, and miscellaneous chemical compounds; fabricating structural metal and stationary tanks; body factories; electrical plants; and retail sale of paint and wallpaper. Risks of myeloma were elevated, though statistically nonsignificantly, in all categories of exposure to gasoline and engine exhausts. Risks rose with likelihood and duration of exposure to phthalates, and were statistically significant and nearly fivefold with probable exposure to vinyl chloride for five or more years. After adjusting for multiple exposures and disregarding exposures within 10 years of diagnosis (or selection as a control), probable exposure to vinyl chloride was associated with increased risk of myeloma, which rose to fivefold with longer exposure. Associations with gasoline, engine exhausts, and phthalates persisted, but were inconsistent with duration and probability of exposure. Previously reported associations with agriculture were not confirmed by these data.