||Hayes RB, Zhang L, Yin S, Swenberg JA, Xi L, Wiencke J, Bechtold WE, Yao M, Rothman N, Haas R, O'Neill JP, Zhang D, Wiemels J, Dosemeci M, Li G, Smith MT
||While 1,3-butadiene is carcinogenic in rodents, cancer causation in humans is less certain. We examined a spectrum of genotoxic outcomes in 41 butadiene polymer production workers and 38 non-exposed controls, in China, to explore the role of butadiene in human carcinogenesis. Because in vitro studies suggest that genetic polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase enzymes influence genotoxic effects of butadiene, we also related genotoxicity to genetic polymorphisms in GSTT1 and GSTM1. Among butadiene-exposed workers, median air exposure was 2 p.p.m. (6 h time-weighted average), due largely to intermittent high level exposures. Compared with unexposed subjects, butadiene-exposed workers had greater levels of hemoglobin N-(2,3,4-trihydroxybutyl)valine (THBVal) adducts (P < 0.0001) and adduct levels tended to correlate, among butadiene-exposed workers, with air measures (P = 0.03). Butadiene-exposed workers did not differ, however, from unexposed workers with respect to frequency of uninduced or diepoxybutane-induced sister chromatid exchanges, aneuploidy as measured by fluorescence in situ hybridization of chromosomes 1, 7, 8 and 12, glycophorin A variants or lymphocyte hprt somatic mutation. Also among the exposed, greater THBVal levels were not associated with increases in uninduced sister chromatid exchanges, aneuploidy, glycophorin A or hprt mutations. Butadiene-exposed workers had greater lymphocyte (P = 0.002) and platelet counts (P = 0.07) and lymphocytes as a percentage of white blood cells were moderately correlated with greater THBVal levels (Spearman's phi = 0.32, P = 0.07). Among butadiene-exposed workers, neither GSTM1 nor GSTT1 genotype status predicted urinary mercapturic acid butanediol formation, THBVal adducts, uninduced sister chromatid exchanges, aneuploidy or mutations in the glycophorin A or hprt genes. Overall, the study demonstrated exposure to butadiene in these workers, by a variety of short-term and long-term measures, but did not show specific genotoxic effects, at the chromosomal or gene levels, related to that exposure.