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||Dietary intake of minerals and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: results from the Golestan Cohort Study.
||Hashemian M, Poustchi H, Abnet CC, Boffetta P, Dawsey SM, Brennan PJ, Pharoah P, Etemadi A, Kamangar F, Sharafkhah M, Hekmatdoost A, Malekzadeh R
||Am J Clin Nutr
||BACKGROUND: Dietary factors have been hypothesized to affect the risk of esophageal cancer via different mechanisms, but the intake of minerals is understudied and the evidence is conflicting. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the associations of dietary intake of minerals with risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). DESIGN: We used data from the Golestan Cohort Study, which was launched in a high-risk region for esophageal cancer in Iran. Participants were enrolled in 2004-2008 and were followed to 2014. Intakes of minerals were assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs of ESCC for dietary intakes of selected minerals. RESULTS: We identified 201 ESCC cases among 47,405 subjects. Calcium intake was significantly inversely associated with the risk of ESCC (HR per 100-mg/d increase: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.96; P = 0.005; quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 HR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.82; P-trend = 0.013). Zinc intake was also inversely associated with ESCC, but the quartile association did not reach significance (HR per 1-mg/d increase: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.77, 0.98; P = 0.027; quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 HR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.28, 1.12; P-trend = 0.097). The relations between dietary intakes of selenium, magnesium, and copper and risk of ESCC were nonlinear (P-nonlinear trend = 0.001, 0.016, and 0.029, respectively). There was no relation between dietary intake of manganese and the risk of ESCC. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that higher intakes of calcium and zinc are associated with a lower risk of ESCC in a high-risk region of Iran.