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Title: Relationship of Terminal Duct Lobular Unit Involution of the Breast with Area and Volume Mammographic Densities.
Authors: Gierach GL,  Patel DA,  Pfeiffer RM,  Figueroa JD,  Linville L,  Papathomas D,  Johnson JM,  Chicoine RE,  Herschorn SD,  Shepherd JA,  Wang J,  Malkov S,  Vacek PM,  Weaver DL,  Fan B,  Mahmoudzadeh AP,  Palakal M,  Xiang J,  Oh H,  Horne HN,  Sprague BL,  Hewitt SM,  Brinton LA,  Sherman ME
Journal: Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
Date: 2016 Feb
Branches: BB, MEB, OD
PubMed ID: 26645278
PMC ID: PMC4784982
Abstract: Elevated mammographic density (MD) is an established breast cancer risk factor. Reduced involution of terminal duct lobular units (TDLU), the histologic source of most breast cancers, has been associated with higher MD and breast cancer risk. We investigated relationships of TDLU involution with area and volumetric MD, measured throughout the breast and surrounding biopsy targets (perilesional). Three measures inversely related to TDLU involution (TDLU count/mm(2), median TDLU span, median acini count/TDLU) assessed in benign diagnostic biopsies from 348 women, ages 40-65, were related to MD area (quantified with thresholding software) and volume (assessed with a density phantom) by analysis of covariance, stratified by menopausal status and adjusted for confounders. Among premenopausal women, TDLU count was directly associated with percent perilesional MD (P trend = 0.03), but not with absolute dense area/volume. Greater TDLU span was associated with elevated percent dense area/volume (P trend<0.05) and absolute perilesional MD (P = 0.003). Acini count was directly associated with absolute perilesional MD (P = 0.02). Greater TDLU involution (all metrics) was associated with increased nondense area/volume (P trend ≤ 0.04). Among postmenopausal women, TDLU measures were not significantly associated with MD. Among premenopausal women, reduced TDLU involution was associated with higher area and volumetric MD, particularly in perilesional parenchyma. Data indicating that TDLU involution and MD are correlated markers of breast cancer risk suggest that associations of MD with breast cancer may partly reflect amounts of at-risk epithelium. If confirmed, these results could suggest a prevention paradigm based on enhancing TDLU involution and monitoring efficacy by assessing MD reduction.