Skip to Content

As a result of the current Federal government funding situation, the information on this website may not be up to date or acted upon.

The NIH Clinical Center (the research hospital of NIH) is open. For more details about its operating status, please visit

Updates regarding government operating status and resumption of normal operations can be found at

Discovering the causes of cancer and the means of prevention

Publications Search - Abstract View

Title: Relationship of demographic and clinical factors to free and total prostate-specific antigen.
Authors: Gelmann EP,  Chia D,  Pinsky PF,  Andriole GL,  Crawford ED,  Reding D,  Hayes RB,  Kramer BS,  Woodrum DL,  Gohagan JK,  Levin DL,  PLCO Screening Trial Investigators
Journal: Urology
Date: 2001 Oct
Branches: OEEB
PubMed ID: 11597539
PMC ID: not available
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To characterize the role of demographic and clinical parameters in the measurements of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), free PSA (fPSA), and percent free PSA (%fPSA). METHODS: This was a cohort study of volunteers to a randomized screening trial. A central laboratory determined PSA and fPSA for the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. A baseline evaluation of free and total PSA was done for 7183 white, black, Asian, Hispanic, and other male volunteers, aged 55 to 74 years. Comparisons were made across racial and ethnic groups and across a set of clinical parameters from a baseline questionnaire. RESULTS: The median levels of serum PSA were less than 2.1 ng/mL in each age-race grouping of the study participants. The levels of free and total PSA were higher in black (n = 868, 12%) participants than in white (n = 4995, 70%) and Asian (n = 849, 11.8%) participants. Individuals who identified themselves as ethnically Hispanic (n = 339, 4.7%) had median PSA levels higher than whites who were not Hispanic. The free and total PSA levels increased with age, particularly among men 70 to 74 years old. However, the %fPSA levels showed less variation among the four racial groups or by age. The free and total PSA levels were higher among those who had a history of benign prostatic disease. CONCLUSIONS: Demographic (age and race/ethnicity) and clinical (history of benign prostatic disease) variables had a moderate effect on the measures of PSA and fPSA and very little effect on %fPSA.