||Garte S, Gaspari L, Alexandrie AK, Ambrosone C, Autrup H, Autrup JL, Baranova H, Bathum L, Benhamou S, Boffetta P, Bouchardy C, Breskvar K, Brockmoller J, Cascorbi I, Clapper ML, Coutelle C, Daly A, Dell'Omo M, Dolzan V, Dresler CM, Fryer A, Haugen A, Hein DW, Hildesheim A, Hirvonen A, Hsieh LL, Ingelman-Sundberg M, Kalina I, Kang D, Kihara M, Kiyohara C, Kremers P, Lazarus P, Le Marchand L, Lechner MC, van Lieshout EM, London S, Manni JJ, Maugard CM, Morita S, Nazar-Stewart V, Noda K, Oda Y, Parl FF, Pastorelli R, Persson I, Peters WH, Rannug A, Rebbeck T, Risch A, Roelandt L, Romkes M, Ryberg D, Salagovic J, Schoket B, Seidegard J, Shields PG, Sim E, Sinnet D, Strange RC, Stücker I, Sugimura H, To-Figueras J, Vineis P, Yu MC, Taioli E
||Using the International Project on Genetic Susceptibility to Environmental Carcinogens (GSEC) database containing information on over 15,000 control (noncancer) subjects, the allele and genotype frequencies for many of the more commonly studied metabolic genes (CYP1A1, CYP2E1, CYP2D6, GSTM1, GSTT1, NAT2, GSTP, and EPHX) in the human population were determined. Major and significant differences in these frequencies were observed between Caucasians (n = 12,525), Asians (n = 2,136), and Africans and African Americans (n = 996), and some, but much less, heterogeneity was observed within Caucasian populations from different countries. No differences in allele frequencies were seen by age, sex, or type of controls (hospital patients versus population controls). No examples of linkage disequilibrium between the different loci were detected based on comparison of observed and expected frequencies for combinations of specific alleles.