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Title: Using regression calibration equations that combine self-reported intake and biomarker measures to obtain unbiased estimates and more powerful tests of dietary associations.
Authors: Freedman LS,  Midthune D,  Carroll RJ,  Tasevska N,  Schatzkin A,  Mares J,  Tinker L,  Potischman N,  Kipnis V
Journal: Am J Epidemiol
Date: 2011 Dec 1
Branches: BB
PubMed ID: 22047826
PMC ID: PMC3224252
Abstract: The authors describe a statistical method of combining self-reports and biomarkers that, with adequate control for confounding, will provide nearly unbiased estimates of diet-disease associations and a valid test of the null hypothesis of no association. The method is based on regression calibration. In cases in which the diet-disease association is mediated by the biomarker, the association needs to be estimated as the total dietary effect in a mediation model. However, the hypothesis of no association is best tested through a marginal model that includes as the exposure the regression calibration-estimated intake but not the biomarker. The authors illustrate the method with data from the Carotenoids and Age-Related Eye Disease Study (2001--2004) and show that inclusion of the biomarker in the regression calibration-estimated intake increases the statistical power. This development sheds light on previous analyses of diet-disease associations reported in the literature.