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Title: Increased lymphocyte replicative index following 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid herbicide exposure.
Authors: Figgs LW,  Holland NT,  Rothmann N,  Zahm SH,  Tarone RE,  Hill R,  Vogt RF,  Smith MT,  Boysen CD,  Holmes FF,  VanDyck K,  Blair A
Journal: Cancer Causes Control
Date: 2000 Apr
Branches: OEEB, BB, OD
PubMed ID: 10843448
PMC ID: not available
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Evaluate peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation (replicative index:RI) and micronuclei frequency (MF) among 2,4-D herbicide applicators. METHODS: Twelve applicators spraying only 2,4-D provided a blood and urine specimen upon enrollment, several urine samples during the spraying season, and a blood specimen at the study's end. Nine controls provided blood and urine specimens upon enrollment and at the study's end. Gas chromatography/tandem mass spectroscopy determined urinary 2,4-D levels and standard in-vitro assays determined RI and MF scores. Applicator RI and MF were compared before and after spraying and with controls. RESULTS: Applicators contributed 45 urine specimens with concentrations ranging from 1.0 to 1700 (microg 2,4-D/g creatinine/L urine) that logarithmically (In) increased as spraying time increased. Applicator RI increased after spraying (p = 0.016), independent of tobacco and alcohol use, and demonstrated a weak dose-response with increasing urinary 2,4-D levels (p = 0.15). Among 2,4-D applicators, pre-exposure complete blood counts and lymphocyte immunophenotypes were not significantly different from post-exposure measurements. CONCLUSION: Urinary 2,4-D concentration, an exposure biomarker, may be associated with lymphocyte replicative index, a cell proliferation biomarker.