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Title: Measurement of spices and seasonings in India: opportunities for cancer epidemiology and prevention.
Authors: Ferrucci LM,  Daniel CR,  Kapur K,  Chadha P,  Shetty H,  Graubard BI,  George PS,  Osborne W,  Yurgalevitch S,  Devasenapathy N,  Chatterjee N,  Prabhakaran D,  Gupta PC,  Mathew A,  Sinha R
Journal: Asian Pac J Cancer Prev
Date: 2010
Branches: BB, MEB
PubMed ID: 21338207
PMC ID: PMC3072051
Abstract: Bioactive components of many foods added during cooking have potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antibacterial and chemopreventive properties. However, epidemiologic studies generally do not collect detailed information on these items, which include spices, chilies, coconuts, garlic, onions, and oils. Since India has some of the highest spice consumption in the world, we developed a computer-based food preparer questionnaire to estimate per capita consumption of 19 spices, chilies, coconuts, garlic, onions, and 13 cooking oils among 3,625 participants in the India Health Study, a multicenter pilot study in three regions of India. We observed notable regional differences in consumption of spices, chilies, coconut, garlic, and onions. In Trivandrum, over 95 percent of the participants consumed 12 different spices, while in New Delhi and Mumbai, 95 percent of participants consumed only four and five spices, respectively. Cooking oil use also varied, as ghee was most common in New Delhi (96.8%) followed by mustard seed oil (78.0%), while in Trivandrum the primary oil was coconut (88.5%) and in Mumbai it was peanut (68.5%). There was some variation in consumption by education, income, and religion. Using a novel method for assessing food items primarly added during cooking, we successfully estimated per capita consumption within an epidemiologic study. Based on basic science research and suggestive ecologic level data on cancer incidence and spice consumption, improving epidemiologic assessment of these potentially chemopreventive food items may enhance our understanding of diet and cancer risk.