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||The effect of dietary intake of fruits and vegetables on the odds ratio of lung cancer among Yunnan tin miners.
||Forman MR, Yao SX, Graubard BI, Qiao YL, McAdams M, Mao BL, Taylor PR
||Int J Epidemiol
||All newly diagnosed cases of lung cancer (N = 183) among male tin miners of Yunnan Province, China and age-sex matched occupational controls (N = 183 aged 45-79 years) were interviewed within 3 months following cancer diagnosis. The questionnaire included information about usual adult diet as well as employment and smoking histories. Over 95% of cases and controls were current smokers. The 27-item food frequency questionnaire included 11 fruits and vegetables rich in vitamin A and/or carotenoids. The effect of dietary intake of fruits and vegetables on risk of lung cancer was examined with adjustment for exposures to radon, arsenic, and smoking as previously documented risk factors for lung cancer. Tin miners with reduced intake of yellow and light green vegetables had statistically significant increased odds ratios (OR) of lung cancer (OR = 2.26 and OR = 2.39 for the lowest two quartiles of intake; P value for trend = 0.02) among cases compared with controls after multiple logistic regression adjustment for covariates; and this relationship was monotonic. Tin miners with reduced intake of tomatoes had statistically significant increased adjusted OR of lung cancer (OR = 2.64, OR = 3.09, OR = 2.36 for the three lowest quartiles of intake; P value for trend = 0.04). This is the first study to demonstrate a protective effect of vegetable intake versus the strong effects of smoking and occupational exposures on lung cancer risk.