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||A prospective study of immune and inflammation markers and risk of lung cancer among female never smokers in Shanghai.
||Shiels MS, Shu XO, Chaturvedi AK, Gao YT, Xiang YB, Cai Q, Hu W, Shelton G, Ji BT, Pinto LA, Kemp TJ, Rothman N, Zheng W, Hildesheim A, Lan Q
||2017 Oct 1
||CGB, IIB, OEEB
||There is a paucity of data on risk factors for lung cancer among never smokers. Here, we have carried out the first large study of circulating inflammation markers and lung cancer risk among female never smokers in Shanghai. A study of 248 lung cancer cases in female never smokers and 263 controls was nested within the Shanghai Women's Health Study (n = 75221), matched by dates of birth and blood collection (mean follow-up time = 7.5 years). Prediagnostic plasma levels of 65 inflammation markers were measured using a Luminex bead-based assay. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated with multivariable logistic regression. Nine of 61 evaluable markers were statistically significantly associated with lung cancer risk among never smoking Chinese women (P-trend across categories <0.05). Soluble interleukin-6 receptor [sIL-6R; highest versus lowest category OR = 2.37; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.40-4.02) and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2/monocyte chemotactic protein 1; (OR = 1.62; 95% CI 0.94-2.80) were associated with an increased risk of lung cancer, whereas interleukin (IL)-21 (OR = 0.53; 95%CI 0.31-0.93), chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1/fractalkine (OR = 0.54; 95% CI 0.30-0.96), soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (sVEGFR2, OR = 0.45; 95% CI 0.26-0.76), sVEGFR3 (OR = 0.53; 95% CI 0.32-0.90), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor I (OR = 0.49; 95% CI 0.29-0.83), IL-10 (OR = 0.60; 95% CI 0.34-1.05) and C-reactive protein (OR = 0.63; 95% CI 0.37-1.06) were associated with a decreased risk. sIL-6R remained significantly associated with lung cancer risk >7.5 years prior to diagnosis. Markers involved in various aspects of the immune response were associated with subsequent lung cancer risk, implicating inflammation in the etiology of lung cancer among female never smokers.