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||Review: Gastric malignancies: Basic aspects.
||Camargo MC, Figueiredo C, Machado JC
||Gastric cancer is the third deadliest cancer in the world, and the absolute number of cases is increasing every year due to aging and growing of high-risk populations. This disease is a consequence of the complex interaction of microbial agents, with environmental and host factors, resulting in the dysregulation of multiple oncogenic and tumor-suppressing signaling pathways. Despite the advances in our understanding of carcinogenesis, there are still reduced therapeutic options for patients with gastric cancer. In recent years, genomic analyses of gastric tumors have emphasized their molecular heterogeneity. The distinction of gastric cancer molecular subtypes may be a key to identify novel therapeutic targets, to predict patient outcome and response to therapy, and to guide early diagnosis strategies. In this review, we summarize the most recent updates on the relationship between microbial agents and gastric cancer, in particular, Helicobacter pylori, the non-H pylori microbiome, and Epstein-Barr virus. We also highlight the main advances made in the past year regarding the molecular characterization of gastric cancer, especially the signatures with potential clinical utility.