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||Long-term cancer risk among people diagnosed with AIDS during childhood.
||Simard EP, Shiels MS, Bhatia K, Engels EA
||Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev
||BACKGROUND: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) results in partial immune restoration for people with AIDS, but its impact on cancer risk among children is unknown. METHODS: Data from the U.S. HIV/AIDS Cancer Match Study were used to evaluate cancer risk for people diagnosed with AIDS as children (diagnosed with AIDS at ages 0-14 years, during 1980-2007, followed for up to 10 years; N = 5,850). We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIR) to compare cancer risk to the general population. Poisson regression evaluated changes in cancer incidence between the pre-HAART (1980-1995) and HAART eras (1996-2007). RESULTS: There were 106 cancers observed with significantly elevated risks for the two major AIDS-defining cancers: Kaposi sarcoma [KS; N = 20, SIR = 1,694; 95% confidence interval (CI), 986-2,712 and SIR = 1,146; 95% CI, 236-3,349] during the pre-HAART and HAART eras, respectively, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL; N = 64, SIR = 338; 95% CI, 242-458 and SIR = 116; 95% CI, 74-175). Incidence of both cancers declined 87% and 60%, respectively, in the HAART era (P < 0.05). Of non-AIDS-defining cancers, leiomyosarcoma risk (N = 9) was elevated during both time periods (SIR = 863; 95% CI, 235-2,211 and SIR = 533; 95% CI, 173-1,243). CONCLUSION: People diagnosed with AIDS during childhood remain at elevated risk for KS, NHL, and leiomyosarcoma in the HAART era. Incidence of KS and NHL declined relative to widespread HAART use, but there was no change in the incidence of other cancers. IMPACT: People diagnosed with AIDS during childhood remain at elevated risk for certain cancers. Continued monitoring is warranted as this immunosuppressed population ages into adulthood where cancer risks generally increase.