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||Macronutrients and insulin resistance in cholesterol gallstone disease.
||Tsai CJ, Leitzmann MF, Willett WC, Giovannucci EL
||Am J Gastroenterol
||Cholelithiasis is a major source of digestive morbidity worldwide. Cholesterol stones account for the majority of gallstones in the United States and other Western countries. The pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstone disease is multifactorial with key factors including cholesterol supersaturation of bile, altered biliary motility, and nucleation and growth of cholesterol crystals. Increasing evidence suggests that many, but not all, causative factors of cholesterol gallstones are related to insulin resistance which, in association with obesity, has reached an epidemic level worldwide. Experimental studies show that hyperinsulinemia, a key feature of insulin resistance, may cause increased hepatic cholesterol secretion and cholesterol supersaturation of bile and gallbladder dysmotility, and thereby may enhance gallstone formation. Insulin resistance syndrome can be modified by environmental factors, including dietary factors. The impact of diet on insulin sensitivity is mediated by both dietary composition and its energy content. The contribution of specific dietary elements to the prevalence and incidence of cholesterol gallstone disease has been explored in animal and human studies. There is considerable evidence to suggest that different types of fatty acids, independent of the total amount of fat consumption, affect insulin sensitivity and cholesterol gallstone disease differently. The effects of salt intake, consumption of protein and carbohydrates, and alcohol drinking on insulin resistance are controversial. Additional intervention trials and controlled experimental feeding studies are needed to further clarify these relationships and to provide useful prophylactic and therapeutic strategies.