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Title: Principal component analysis of dietary and lifestyle patterns in relation to risk of subtypes of esophageal and gastric cancer.
Authors: Navarro Silvera SA,  Mayne ST,  Risch HA,  Gammon MD,  Vaughan T,  Chow WH,  Dubin JA,  Dubrow R,  Schoenberg J,  Stanford JL,  West AB,  Rotterdam H,  Blot WJ
Journal: Ann Epidemiol
Date: 2011 Jul
Branches: OEEB
PubMed ID: 21435900
PMC ID: PMC3109225
Abstract: PURPOSE: To carry out pattern analyses of dietary and lifestyle factors in relation to risk of esophageal and gastric cancers. METHODS: We evaluated risk factors for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA), esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA), and other gastric cancers (OGA) using data from a population-based case-control study conducted in Connecticut, New Jersey, and western Washington state. Dietary/lifestyle patterns were created using principal component analysis (PCA). Impact of the resultant scores on cancer risk was estimated through logistic regression. RESULTS: PCA identified six patterns: meat/nitrite, fruit/vegetable, smoking/alcohol, legume/meat alternate, GERD/BMI, and fish/vitamin C. Risk of each cancer under study increased with rising meat/nitrite score. Risk of EA increased with increasing GERD/BMI score, and risk of ESCC rose with increasing smoking/alcohol score and decreasing gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)/body mass index (BMI) score. Fruit/vegetable scores were inversely associated with EA, ESCC, and GCA. CONCLUSIONS: PCA may provide a useful approach for summarizing extensive dietary/lifestyle data into fewer interpretable combinations that discriminate between cancer cases and controls. The analyses suggest that meat/nitrite intake is associated with elevated risk of each cancer under study, whereas fruit/vegetable intake reduces risk of EA, ESCC, and GCA. GERD/obesity were confirmed as risk factors for EA and smoking/alcohol as risk factors for ESCC.