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||Do non-HLA genes influence development of persistent islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes in children with high-risk HLA-DR,DQ genotypes?
||Steck AK, Zhang W, Bugawan TL, Barriga KJ, Blair A, Erlich HA, Eisenbarth GS, Norris JM, Rewers MJ
||OBJECTIVE: Specific alleles of non-HLA genes INS, CTLA-4, and PTPN22 have been associated with type 1 diabetes. We examined whether some of these alleles influence development of islet autoimmunity or progression from persistent islet autoimmunity to type 1 diabetes in children with high-risk HLA-DR,DQ genotypes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Since 1993, the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY) has followed 2,449 young children carrying HLA-DR,DQ genotypes associated with type 1 diabetes. Of those, 112 have developed islet autoimmunity (persistent autoantibodies to insulin, GAD65, and/or IA-2), and 47 of these have progressed to type 1 diabetes. The influence of polymorphisms of INS(-23Hph1), CTLA-4(T17A), and PTPN22(R620W) on development of persistent islet autoimmunity and progression to type 1 diabetes was evaluated by parametric models and by survival analyses. RESULTS: PTPN22(R620W) allele T was associated with development of persistent islet autoimmunity (hazard ratio 1.83 [95% CI 1.27-2.63]) controlling for ethnicity, presence of HLA-DR3/4,DQB1*0302, and having a first-degree relative with type 1 diabetes. Survival analyses showed a significantly (P = 0.002) higher risk of persistent islet autoimmunity by age 10 years for the TT genotype (27.3%) than for the CT or CC genotype (7.9 and 5.3%, respectively). Cumulative risk of persistent islet autoimmunity was slightly higher (P = 0.02) for the INS(-23Hph1) AA genotype (7.8%) than for the AT or TT genotype (4.2 and 6.4% risk by age 10 years, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Whereas the HLA-DR3/4,DQB1*0302 genotype had a dramatic influence on both development of islet autoimmunity and progression to type 1 diabetes, the PTPN22(R620W) T allele significantly influences progression to persistent islet autoimmunity in the DAISY cohort.