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||A meta-analysis of the incidence of non-AIDS cancers in HIV-infected individuals.
||Shiels MS, Cole SR, Kirk GD, Poole C
||J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr
||OBJECTIVE: To estimate summary standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of non-AIDS cancers among HIV-infected individuals compared with general population rates overall and stratified by gender, AIDS, and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era. DESIGN: A meta-analysis using SIRs from 18 studies of non-AIDS cancer in HIV-infected individuals. METHODS: SIRs for non-AIDS cancers in HIV-infected individuals and 95% confidence limits (CLs) were abstracted from each study. Random effects meta-analyses were used to estimate summary SIRs. Modifications by gender, AIDS, and HAART era were estimated with meta-regression. RESULTS: Four thousand seven hundred ninety-seven non-AIDS cancers occurred among 625,716 HIV-infected individuals. SIRs for several cancers were elevated. In particular, cancers associated with infections, such as anal (SIR = 28; 95% CL 21 to 35), liver (SIR = 5.6; 95% CL 4.0 to 7.7), and Hodgkin lymphoma (SIR = 11; 95% CL 8.8 to 15) and smoking, such as lung (SIR = 2.6; 95% CL 2.1 to 3.1), kidney (SIR = 1.7; 95% CL 1.3 to 2.2), and laryngeal (SIR = 1.5; 95% CL 1.1 to 2.0). AIDS was associated with greater SIRs for Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia, lung, brain, and all non-AIDS cancers combined. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-infected individuals may be at an increased risk of developing non-AIDS cancers, particularly those associated with infections and smoking. An association with advanced immune suppression was suggested for certain cancers.