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Title: Meat and meat-related compounds and risk of prostate cancer in a large prospective cohort study in the United States.
Authors: Sinha R,  Park Y,  Graubard BI,  Leitzmann MF,  Hollenbeck A,  Schatzkin A,  Cross AJ
Journal: Am J Epidemiol
Date: 2009 Nov 1
Branches: NEB, BB
PubMed ID: 19808637
PMC ID: PMC2781742
Abstract: The authors examined associations between meat consumption (type, cooking method, and related mutagens), heme iron, nitrite/nitrate, and prostate cancer in a cohort of 175,343 US men aged 50-71 years. During 9 years of follow-up (1995-2003), they ascertained 10,313 prostate cancer cases (1,102 advanced) and 419 fatal cases. Hazard ratios comparing the fifth intake quintile with the first revealed elevated risks associated with red and processed meat for total (red meat: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.21; processed meat: HR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.14) and advanced (red meat: HR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.65; processed meat: HR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.61) prostate cancer. Heme iron, barbecued/grilled meat, and benzo[a]pyrene were all positively associated with total (HR = 1.09 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.17), HR = 1.11 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.19), and HR = 1.09 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.18), respectively) and advanced (HR = 1.28 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.58), HR = 1.36 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.69), and HR = 1.28 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.65), respectively) disease. Nitrite (HR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.51) and nitrate (HR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.61) intakes were associated with advanced prostate cancer. There were no clear associations for fatal prostate cancer. Red and processed meat may be positively associated with prostate cancer via mechanisms involving heme iron, nitrite/nitrate, grilling/barbecuing, and benzo[a]pyrene.