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Title: Radiation exposure from CT scans in childhood and subsequent risk of leukaemia and brain tumours: a retrospective cohort study.
Authors: Pearce MS,  Salotti JA,  Little MP,  McHugh K,  Lee C,  Kim KP,  Howe NL,  Ronckers CM,  Rajaraman P,  Sir Craft AW,  Parker L,  Berrington de González A
Journal: Lancet
Date: 2012 Aug 4
Branches: REB
PubMed ID: 22681860
PMC ID: PMC3418594
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Although CT scans are very useful clinically, potential cancer risks exist from associated ionising radiation, in particular for children who are more radiosensitive than adults. We aimed to assess the excess risk of leukaemia and brain tumours after CT scans in a cohort of children and young adults. METHODS: In our retrospective cohort study, we included patients without previous cancer diagnoses who were first examined with CT in National Health Service (NHS) centres in England, Wales, or Scotland (Great Britain) between 1985 and 2002, when they were younger than 22 years of age. We obtained data for cancer incidence, mortality, and loss to follow-up from the NHS Central Registry from Jan 1, 1985, to Dec 31, 2008. We estimated absorbed brain and red bone marrow doses per CT scan in mGy and assessed excess incidence of leukaemia and brain tumours cancer with Poisson relative risk models. To avoid inclusion of CT scans related to cancer diagnosis, follow-up for leukaemia began 2 years after the first CT and for brain tumours 5 years after the first CT. FINDINGS: During follow-up, 74 of 178,604 patients were diagnosed with leukaemia and 135 of 176,587 patients were diagnosed with brain tumours. We noted a positive association between radiation dose from CT scans and leukaemia (excess relative risk [ERR] per mGy 0ˇ036, 95% CI 0ˇ005-0ˇ120; p=0ˇ0097) and brain tumours (0ˇ023, 0ˇ010-0ˇ049; p<0ˇ0001). Compared with patients who received a dose of less than 5 mGy, the relative risk of leukaemia for patients who received a cumulative dose of at least 30 mGy (mean dose 51ˇ13 mGy) was 3ˇ18 (95% CI 1ˇ46-6ˇ94) and the relative risk of brain cancer for patients who received a cumulative dose of 50-74 mGy (mean dose 60ˇ42 mGy) was 2ˇ82 (1ˇ33-6ˇ03). INTERPRETATION: Use of CT scans in children to deliver cumulative doses of about 50 mGy might almost triple the risk of leukaemia and doses of about 60 mGy might triple the risk of brain cancer. Because these cancers are relatively rare, the cumulative absolute risks are small: in the 10 years after the first scan for patients younger than 10 years, one excess case of leukaemia and one excess case of brain tumour per 10,000 head CT scans is estimated to occur. Nevertheless, although clinical benefits should outweigh the small absolute risks, radiation doses from CT scans ought to be kept as low as possible and alternative procedures, which do not involve ionising radiation, should be considered if appropriate. FUNDING: US National Cancer Institute and UK Department of Health.