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Title: Biological insights from 108 schizophrenia-associated genetic loci.
Authors: Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium,  Ripke S,  Neale BM,  Corvin A,  Walters JT,  Farh KH,  Holmans PA,  Lee P,  Bulik-Sullivan B,  Collier DA,  Huang H,  Pers TH,  Agartz I,  Agerbo E,  Albus M,  Alexander M,  Amin F,  Bacanu SA,  Begemann M,  Belliveau RA,  Bene J,  Bergen SE,  Bevilacqua E,  Bigdeli TB,  Black DW,  Bruggeman R,  Buccola NG,  Buckner RL,  Byerley W,  Cahn W,  Cai G,  Campion D,  Cantor RM,  Carr VJ,  Carrera N,  Catts SV,  Chambert KD,  Chan RC,  Chen RY,  Chen EY,  Cheng W,  Cheung EF,  Chong SA,  Cloninger CR,  Cohen D,  Cohen N,  Cormican P,  Craddock N,  Crowley JJ,  Curtis D,  Davidson M,  Davis KL,  Degenhardt F,  Del Favero J,  Demontis D,  Dikeos D,  Dinan T,  Djurovic S,  Donohoe G,  Drapeau E,  Duan J,  Dudbridge F,  Durmishi N,  Eichhammer P,  Eriksson J,  Escott-Price V,  Essioux L,  Fanous AH,  Farrell MS,  Frank J,  Franke L,  Freedman R,  Freimer NB,  Friedl M,  Friedman JI,  Fromer M,  Genovese G,  Georgieva L,  Giegling I,  Giusti-Rodríguez P,  Godard S,  Goldstein JI,  Golimbet V,  Gopal S,  Gratten J,  de Haan L,  Hammer C,  Hamshere ML,  Hansen M,  Hansen T,  Haroutunian V,  Hartmann AM,  Henskens FA,  Herms S,  Hirschhorn JN,  Hoffmann P,  Hofman A,  Hollegaard MV,  Hougaard DM,  Ikeda M,  Joa I,  Julià A,  Kahn RS,  Kalaydjieva L,  Karachanak-Yankova S,  Karjalainen J,  Kavanagh D,  Keller MC,  Kennedy JL,  Khrunin A,  Kim Y,  Klovins J,  Knowles JA,  Konte B,  Kucinskas V,  Ausrele Kucinskiene Z,  Kuzelova-Ptackova H,  Kähler AK,  Laurent C,  Keong JL,  Lee SH,  Legge SE,  Lerer B,  Li M,  Li T,  Liang KY,  Lieberman J,  Limborska S,  Loughland CM,  Lubinski J,  Lönnqvist J,  Macek M,  Magnusson PK,  Maher BS,  Maier W,  Mallet J,  Marsal S,  Mattheisen M,  Mattingsdal M,  McCarley RW,  McDonald C,  McIntosh AM,  Meier S,  Meijer CJ,  Melegh B,  Melle I,  Mesholam-Gately RI,  Metspalu A,  Michie PT,  Milani L,  Milanova V,  Mokrab Y,  Morris DW,  Mors O,  Murphy KC,  Murray RM,  Myin-Germeys I,  Müller-Myhsok B,  Nelis M,  Nenadic I,  Nertney DA,  Nestadt G,  Nicodemus KK,  Nikitina-Zake L,  Nisenbaum L,  Nordin A,  O'Callaghan E,  O'Dushlaine C,  O'Neill FA,  Oh SY,  Olincy A,  Olsen L,  Van Os J,  Pantelis C,  Papadimitriou GN,  Papiol S,  Parkhomenko E,  Pato MT,  Paunio T,  Pejovic-Milovancevic M,  Perkins DO,  Pietiläinen O,  Pimm J,  Pocklington AJ,  Powell J,  Price A,  Pulver AE,  Purcell SM,  Quested D,  Rasmussen HB,  Reichenberg A,  Reimers MA,  Richards AL,  Roffman JL,  Roussos P,  Ruderfer DM,  Salomaa V,  Sanders AR,  Schall U,  Schubert CR,  Schulze TG,  Schwab SG,  Scolnick EM,  Scott RJ,  Seidman LJ,  Shi J,  Sigurdsson E,  Silagadze T,  Silverman JM,  Sim K,  Slominsky P,  Smoller JW,  So HC,  Spencer CA,  Stahl EA,  Stefansson H,  Steinberg S,  Stogmann E,  Straub RE,  Strengman E,  Strohmaier J,  Stroup TS,  Subramaniam M,  Suvisaari J,  Svrakic DM,  Szatkiewicz JP,  Söderman E,  Thirumalai S,  Toncheva D,  Tosato S,  Veijola J,  Waddington J,  Walsh D,  Wang D,  Wang Q,  Webb BT,  Weiser M,  Wildenauer DB,  Williams NM,  Williams S,  Witt SH,  Wolen AR,  Wong EH,  Wormley BK,  Xi HS,  Zai CC,  Zheng X,  Zimprich F,  Wray NR,  Stefansson K,  Visscher PM,  Adolfsson R,  Andreassen OA,  Blackwood DH,  Bramon E,  Buxbaum JD,  Børglum AD,  Cichon S,  Darvasi A,  Domenici E,  Ehrenreich H,  Esko T,  Gejman PV,  Gill M,  Gurling H,  Hultman CM,  Iwata N,  Jablensky AV,  Jönsson EG,  Kendler KS,  Kirov G,  Knight J,  Lencz T,  Levinson DF,  Li QS,  Liu J,  Malhotra AK,  McCarroll SA,  McQuillin A,  Moran JL,  Mortensen PB,  Mowry BJ,  Nöthen MM,  Ophoff RA,  Owen MJ,  Palotie A,  Pato CN,  Petryshen TL,  Posthuma D,  Rietschel M,  Riley BP,  Rujescu D,  Sham PC,  Sklar P,  St Clair D,  Weinberger DR,  Wendland JR,  Werge T,  Daly MJ,  Sullivan PF,  O'Donovan MC
Journal: Nature
Date: 2014 Jul 24
Branches: BB
PubMed ID: 25056061
PMC ID: PMC4112379
Abstract: Schizophrenia is a highly heritable disorder. Genetic risk is conferred by a large number of alleles, including common alleles of small effect that might be detected by genome-wide association studies. Here we report a multi-stage schizophrenia genome-wide association study of up to 36,989 cases and 113,075 controls. We identify 128 independent associations spanning 108 conservatively defined loci that meet genome-wide significance, 83 of which have not been previously reported. Associations were enriched among genes expressed in brain, providing biological plausibility for the findings. Many findings have the potential to provide entirely new insights into aetiology, but associations at DRD2 and several genes involved in glutamatergic neurotransmission highlight molecules of known and potential therapeutic relevance to schizophrenia, and are consistent with leading pathophysiological hypotheses. Independent of genes expressed in brain, associations were enriched among genes expressed in tissues that have important roles in immunity, providing support for the speculated link between the immune system and schizophrenia.