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Title: Cervical cancer prevention in low- and middle-income countries: feasible, affordable, essential.
Authors: Sahasrabuddhe VV,  Parham GP,  Mwanahamuntu MH,  Vermund SH
Journal: Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
Date: 2012 Jan
Branches: HREB
PubMed ID: 22158053
PMC ID: PMC3586242
Abstract: The annual worldwide burden of the preventable disease cervical cancer is more than 530,000 new cases and 275,000 deaths, with the majority occurring in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), where cervical cancer screening and early treatment are uncommon. Widely used in high-income countries, Pap smear (cytology based) screening is expensive and challenging for implementation in LMICs, where lower-cost, effective alternatives such as visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and rapid human papillomavirus (HPV)-based screening tests offer promise for scaling up prevention services. Integrating HPV screening with VIA in "screen-and-treat-or-refer" programs offers the dual benefits of HPV screening to maximize detection and using VIA to triage for advanced lesions/cancer, as well as a pelvic exam to address other gynecologic issues. A major issue in LMICs is coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and HPV, which further increases the risk for cervical cancer and marks a population with perhaps the greatest need of cervical cancer prevention. Public-private partnerships to enhance the availability of cervical cancer prevention services within HIV/AIDS care delivery platforms through initiatives such as Pink Ribbon Red Ribbon present an historic opportunity to expand cervical cancer screening in LMICs.