||Nan H, Hutter CM, Lin Y, Jacobs EJ, Ulrich CM, White E, Baron JA, Berndt SI, Brenner H, Butterbach K, Caan BJ, Campbell PT, Carlson CS, Casey G, Chang-Claude J, Chanock SJ, Cotterchio M, Duggan D, Figueiredo JC, Fuchs CS, Giovannucci EL, Gong J, Haile RW, Harrison TA, Hayes RB, Hoffmeister M, Hopper JL, Hudson TJ, Jenkins MA, Jiao S, Lindor NM, Lemire M, Le Marchand L, Newcomb PA, Ogino S, Pflugeisen BM, Potter JD, Qu C, Rosse SA, Rudolph A, Schoen RE, Schumacher FR, Seminara D, Slattery ML, Thibodeau SN, Thomas F, Thornquist M, Warnick GS, Zanke BW, Gauderman WJ, Peters U, Hsu L, Chan AT, CCFR, GECCO
||IMPORTANCE: Use of aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer. OBJECTIVE: To identify common genetic markers that may confer differential benefit from aspirin or NSAID chemoprevention, we tested gene × environment interactions between regular use of aspirin and/or NSAIDs and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in relation to risk of colorectal cancer. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Case-control study using data from 5 case-control and 5 cohort studies initiated between 1976 and 2003 across the United States, Canada, Australia, and Germany and including colorectal cancer cases (n=8634) and matched controls (n=8553) ascertained between 1976 and 2011. Participants were all of European descent. EXPOSURES: Genome-wide SNP data and information on regular use of aspirin and/or NSAIDs and other risk factors. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Colorectal cancer. RESULTS: Regular use of aspirin and/or NSAIDs was associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer (prevalence, 28% vs 38%; odds ratio [OR], 0.69 [95% CI, 0.64-0.74]; P = 6.2 × 10(-28)) compared with nonregular use. In the conventional logistic regression analysis, the SNP rs2965667 at chromosome 12p12.3 near the MGST1 gene showed a genome-wide significant interaction with aspirin and/or NSAID use (P = 4.6 × 10(-9) for interaction). Aspirin and/or NSAID use was associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer among individuals with rs2965667-TT genotype (prevalence, 28% vs 38%; OR, 0.66 [95% CI, 0.61-0.70]; P = 7.7 × 10(-33)) but with a higher risk among those with rare (4%) TA or AA genotypes (prevalence, 35% vs 29%; OR, 1.89 [95% CI, 1.27-2.81]; P = .002). In case-only interaction analysis, the SNP rs16973225 at chromosome 15q25.2 near the IL16 gene showed a genome-wide significant interaction with use of aspirin and/or NSAIDs (P = 8.2 × 10(-9) for interaction). Regular use was associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer among individuals with rs16973225-AA genotype (prevalence, 28% vs 38%; OR, 0.66 [95% CI, 0.62-0.71]; P = 1.9 × 10(-30)) but was not associated with risk of colorectal cancer among those with less common (9%) AC or CC genotypes (prevalence, 36% vs 39%; OR, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.78-1.20]; P = .76). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this genome-wide investigation of gene × environment interactions, use of aspirin and/or NSAIDs was associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer, and this association differed according to genetic variation at 2 SNPs at chromosomes 12 and 15. Validation of these findings in additional populations may facilitate targeted colorectal cancer prevention strategies.