||Limou S, Coulonges C, Herbeck JT, van Manen D, An P, Le Clerc S, Delaneau O, Diop G, Taing L, Montes M, van't Wout AB, Gottlieb GS, Therwath A, Rouzioux C, Delfraissy JF, Lelièvre JD, Lévy Y, Hercberg S, Dina C, Phair J, Donfield S, Goedert JJ, Buchbinder S, Estaquier J, Schächter F, Gut I, Froguel P, Mullins JI, Schuitemaker H, Winkler C, Zagury JF
||BACKGROUND: The compilation of previous genomewide association studies of AIDS shows a major polymorphism in the HCP5 gene associated with both control of the viral load and long-term nonprogression (LTNP) to AIDS. METHODS: To look for genetic variants that affect LTNP without necessary control of the viral load, we reanalyzed the genomewide data of the unique LTNP Genomics of Resistance to Immunodeficiency Virus (GRIV) cohort by excluding "elite controller" patients, who were controlling the viral load at very low levels (<100 copies/mL). RESULTS: The rs2234358 polymorphism in the CXCR6 gene was the strongest signal (P=2.5 x 10(-7); odds ratio, 1.85) obtained for the genomewide association study comparing the 186 GRIV LTNPs who were not elite controllers with 697 uninfected control subjects. This association was replicated in 3 additional independent European studies, reaching genomewide significance of P(combined)=9.7 x 10(-10). This association with LTNP is independent of the CCR2-CCR5 locus and the HCP5 polymorphisms. CONCLUSIONS: The statistical significance, the replication, and the magnitude of the association demonstrate that CXCR6 is likely involved in the molecular etiology of AIDS and, in particular, in LTNP, emphasizing the power of extreme-phenotype cohorts. CXCR6 is a chemokine receptor that is known as a minor coreceptor in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection but could participate in disease progression through its role as a mediator of inflammation.