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||Effects of α-tocopherol and β-carotene supplementation on liver cancer incidence and chronic liver disease mortality in the ATBC study.
||Lai GY, Weinstein SJ, Taylor PR, McGlynn KA, Virtamo J, Gail MH, Albanes D, Freedman ND
||Br J Cancer
||2014 Dec 9
||BB, GEB, MEB
||BACKGROUND: Recent data suggest the possible benefits of α-tocopherol and β-carotene supplementation on liver cancer and chronic liver disease (CLD), but the long-term trial data are limited. METHODS: We evaluated the efficacy of supplemental 50 mg day(-1) α-tocopherol and 20 mg day(-1) β-carotene on incident liver cancer and CLD mortality in a randomised trial of 29,105 Finnish male smokers, who received supplementation for 5-8 years and were followed for 16 additional years for outcomes. RESULTS: Supplemental α-tocopherol, β-carotene, or both, relative to placebo, did not reduce the risk of liver cancer or CLD, either overall, during the intervention or during the post-intervention period. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term supplemental α-tocopherol or β-carotene had no effect on liver cancer or CLD mortality over 24 years of follow-up.