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||Hormone use and risk for lung cancer: a pooled analysis from the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO).
||Pesatori AC, Carugno M, Consonni D, Hung RJ, Papadoupolos A, Landi MT, Brenner H, Müller H, Harris CC, Duell EJ, Andrew AS, McLaughlin JR, Schwartz AG, Wenzlaff AS, Stucker I
||Br J Cancer
||2013 Oct 1
||BB, GEB, OEEB
||BACKGROUND: The association between oral contraceptive (OC) use, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and lung cancer risk in women is still debated. METHODS: We performed a pooled analysis of six case-control studies (1961 cases and 2609 controls) contributing to the International Lung Cancer Consortium. Potential associations were investigated with multivariable unconditional logistic regression and meta-analytic models. Multinomial logistic regressions were performed to investigate lung cancer risk across histologic types. RESULTS: A reduced lung cancer risk was found for OC (odds ratio (OR)=0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.68-0.97) and HRT ever users (OR=0.77; 95% CI: 0.66-0.90). Both oestrogen only and oestrogen+progestin HRT were associated with decreased risk (OR=0.76; 95% CI: 0.61-0.94, and OR=0.66; 95% CI: 0.49-0.88, respectively). No dose-response relationship was observed with years of OC/HRT use. The greatest risk reduction was seen for squamous cell carcinoma (OR=0.53; 95% CI: 0.37-0.76) in OC users and in both adenocarcinoma (OR=0.79; 95% CI: 0.66-0.95) and small cell carcinoma (OR=0.37; 95% CI: 0.19-0.71) in HRT users. No interaction with smoking status or BMI was observed. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that exogenous hormones can play a protective role in lung cancer aetiology. However, given inconsistencies with epidemiological evidence from cohort studies, further and larger investigations are needed for a more comprehensive view of lung cancer development in women.