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||Tea, coffee, carbonated soft drinks and upper gastrointestinal tract cancer risk in a large United States prospective cohort study.
||Ren JS, Freedman ND, Kamangar F, Dawsey SM, Hollenbeck AR, Schatzkin A, Abnet CC
||Eur J Cancer
||The authors investigated the relationship between hot tea, iced tea, coffee and carbonated soft drinks consumption and upper gastrointestinal tract cancers risk in the NIH-AARP Study. During 2,584,953 person-years of follow-up on 481,563 subjects, 392 oral cavity, 178 pharynx, 307 larynx, 231 gastric cardia, 224 gastric non-cardia cancer, 123 Oesophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (ESCC) and 305 Oesophageal Adenocarcinoma (EADC) cases were accrued. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated by multivariate-adjusted Cox regression. Compared to non-drinking, the hazard ratio for hot tea intake of > or =1 cup/day was 0.37 (95% CI: 0.20, 0.70) for pharyngeal cancer. The authors also observed a significant association between coffee drinking and risk of gastric cardia cancer (compared to <1 cup/day, the hazard ratio for drinking >3 cups/day was 1.57 (95% CI: 1.03, 2.39)), and an inverse association between coffee drinking and EADC for the cases occurring in the last 3 years of follow-up (compared to <1 cup/day, the hazard ratio for drinking >3 cups/day was 0.54 (95% CI: 0.31, 0.92)), but no association in earlier follow-up. In summary, hot tea intake was inversely associated with pharyngeal cancer, and coffee was directly associated with gastric cardia cancer, but was inversely associated with EADC during some follow-up periods.