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||Detection of K-ras and p53 mutations in sputum samples of lung cancer patients using laser capture microdissection microscope and mutation analysis.
||Keohavong P, Gao WM, Zheng KC, Mady H, Lan Q, Melhem M, Mumford J
||2004 Jan 1
||Mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene and the K-ras oncogene have been frequently found in sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples of lung cancer patients and other patients prior to presenting clinical symptoms of lung cancer, suggesting that they may provide useful biomarkers for early lung cancer diagnosis. However, the detection of these gene mutations in sputum and BAL samples has been complicated by the fact that they often occur in only a small fraction of epithelial cells among sputum cells and, in the case of p53 gene, at many codons. In this study, sputum cells were collected on a filter membrane by sputum cytocentrifugation and morphologically analyzed. Epithelial cells were selectively taken by using a laser capture microdissection microscope and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) for p53 mutations and by PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) for K-ras mutations. This method was used to analyze sputum of 15 Chinese women with lung cancer from Xuan Wei County, China and detected mutations in sputum of 7 (46.7%) patients, including 5 patients with p53 mutations, 1 patient with a K-ras mutation, and 1 patient with K-ras and p53 mutations. For comparison, only two of the mutations were detected by conventional methods. Therefore, the laser capture/mutation analysis method is sensitive and facilitates the detection of low-fraction mutations occurring throughout the p53 and K-ras genes in sputum of lung cancer patients. This method may be applicable to the analysis of epithelial cells from clinically normal sputum or BAL samples from individuals with a high risk for developing lung cancer.