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||Tubal ligation frequency in Oklahoma women with cervical cancer.
||Mathews CA, Stoner JA, Wentzensen N, Moxley KM, Tenney ME, Tuller ER, Myers T, Landrum LM, Lanneau G, Zuna RE, Gold MA, Wang SS, Walker JL
||OBJECTIVE: Infrequent Pap screening is an important risk factor for cervical cancer. We studied the association between contraceptive methods, screening frequency, and cancer. METHODS: Women (n=2004) enrolled in the cross-sectional Study to Understand Cervical Cancer Endpoints and Determinants (SUCCEED) underwent colposcopy to evaluate an abnormal Pap test. Questionnaire data were compared between those with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 3/adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and those with invasive cancer to identify factors associated with cancer. Logistic regression was used to calculate age-stratified measures of association between contraceptive method and Pap frequency as well as tubal ligation (TL) and cancer risk. RESULTS: In all age groups, women with TL were more likely to have had no Pap screening in the previous 5 years compared to women using other contraception: 26-35 years (OR 4.6, 95% CI 2.4-8.6; p<0.001), 36-45 years (OR 3.8, 95% CI 2.1-7.0; p<0.001), and 46-55 years (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.0-4.9; p=0.050). Subjects with cancer (n=163) were more likely to have had a TL (41% vs. 21%, p<0.001) than those with CIN 3/AIS (n=370). Age-stratified analyses showed increased odds of tubal ligation in women with cancer versus those with CIN 3/AIS between 25 and 45 years, with a significant increase in women 26 to 35 years old (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.4-8.1; p=0.009). Adjusting for Pap frequency changed the effect only slightly, suggesting that increased risk was not fully mediated by lack of screening. CONCLUSION: Contraceptive type is associated with Pap screening. Women with TLs obtain less frequent Pap testing and may be at an increased risk for cervical cancer.