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Title: Association of serum α-tocopherol, β-carotene, and retinol with liver cancer incidence and chronic liver disease mortality.
Authors: Lai GY,  Weinstein SJ,  Albanes D,  Taylor PR,  Virtamo J,  McGlynn KA,  Freedman ND
Journal: Br J Cancer
Date: 2014 Oct 14
Branches: GEB, HREB, NEB
PubMed ID: 25314058
PMC ID: not available
Abstract: Background:Micronutrients may influence the development or progression of liver cancer and liver disease. We evaluated the association of serum α-tocopherol, β-carotene, and retinol with incident liver cancer and chronic liver disease (CLD) mortality in a prospective cohort of middle-aged Finnish male smokers.Methods:Baseline and 3-year follow-up serum were available from 29 046 and 22 805 men, respectively. After 24 years of follow-up, 208 men were diagnosed with liver cancer and 237 died from CLD. Hazards ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for highest vs lowest quartiles from multivariate proportional hazards models.Results:Higher β-carotene and retinol levels were associated with less liver cancer (β-carotene: 0.35, 0.22-0.55, P-trend <0.0001; retinol: 0.58, 0.39-0.85, P-trend=0.0009) and CLD mortality (β-carotene: 0.47, 0.30-0.75, P-trend=0.001; retinol: 0.55, 0.38-0.78, P-trend=0.0007). α-Tocopherol was associated with CLD mortality (0.63, 0.40-0.99, P-trend=0.06), but not with liver cancer (1.06, 0.64-1.74, P-trend=0.77). Participants with higher levels of β-carotene and retinol, but not α-tocopherol, at both baseline and year 3 had lower risk of each outcome than those with lower levels.Conclusions:Our findings suggest that higher concentrations of β-carotene and retinol are associated with incident liver cancer and CLD. However, such data do not indicate that supplementation should be considered for these diseases.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 14 October 2014; doi:10.1038/bjc.2014.365