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Title: Nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk.
Authors: Lee KM,  Kang D,  Park SK,  Berndt SI,  Reding D,  Chatterjee N,  Chanock S,  Huang WY,  Hayes RB
Journal: Carcinogenesis
Date: 2009 Apr
Branches: OEEB, BB, CGR
PubMed ID: 19168583
PMC ID: PMC2664454
Abstract: Nitric oxide (NO) induces cytotoxicity and angiogenesis, and may play a role in prostate carcinogenesis, potentially modulated by environmental exposures. We evaluated the association of prostate cancer with genetic polymorphisms in two genes related to intracellular NO: NOS2A [inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS); -2892T>C, Ex16 + 14C>T (S608L), IVS16 + 88T>G and IVS20 + 524G>A] and NOS3 [endothelial NOS; IVS1-762C>T, Ex7-43C>T (D258D), IVS7-26A>G, Ex8-63G>T (E298D) and IVS15-62G>T]. Prostate cancer cases (n = 1320) from the screening arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial were frequency matched to controls (n = 1842), by age, race, time since initial screening and year of blood draw. An antioxidant score [range 3-12; low (3-7) versus high (8-12)] was created by summing the quartile levels of vitamin E, beta-carotene and lycopene, which were coded from 1 to 4, respectively. The global tests for all eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (excluding NOS2A-2892T>C, with low minor allele frequency) were statistically significant for prostate cancer (P = 0.005), especially for aggressive cancer (stage III-IV or Gleason score > or = 7) (P = 0.01). The NOS2A IVS16 + 88 GT/TT was associated with increased prostate cancer risk (odds ratio = 1.24, 95% confidence interval = 1.00-1.54), whereas the IVS20 + 524 AG/GG was associated with decreased risk (0.77, 0.66-0.90). The NOS3 IVS7-26GG was associated with increased prostate cancer risk (1.33, 1.07-1.64). All these SNPs showed significant associations with aggressive cancer and not for non-aggressive cancer. In the evaluation of effect modification, the effect of the NOS2A IVS16 + 88 GT/TT on aggressive cancer was stronger among subjects with higher antioxidant intake (1.61, 1.18-2.19; P(interaction) = 0.01). Our results suggest that NOS gene polymorphisms are genetic susceptibility factors for aggressive prostate cancer.