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||In-home coal and wood use and lung cancer risk: a pooled analysis of the International Lung Cancer Consortium.
||Hosgood HD 3rd, Boffetta P, Greenland S, Lee YC, McLaughlin J, Seow A, Duell EJ, Andrew AS, Zaridze D, Szeszenia-Dabrowska N, Rudnai P, Lissowska J, Fabiánová E, Mates D, Bencko V, Foretova L, Janout V, Morgenstern H, Rothman N, Hung RJ, Brennan P, Lan Q
||Environ Health Perspect
||BACKGROUND: Domestic fuel combustion from cooking and heating is an important public health issue because roughly 3 billion people are exposed worldwide. Recently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified indoor emissions from household coal combustion as a human carcinogen (group 1) and from biomass fuel (primarily wood) as a probable human carcinogen (group 2A). OBJECTIVES: We pooled seven studies from the International Lung Cancer Consortium (5,105 cases and 6,535 controls) to provide further epidemiological evaluation of the association between in-home solid-fuel use, particularly wood, and lung cancer risk. METHODS: Using questionnaire data, we classified subjects as predominant solid-fuel users (e.g., coal, wood) or nonsolid-fuel users (e.g., oil, gas, electricity). Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and to compute 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for age, sex, education, smoking status, race/ethnicity, and study center. RESULTS: Compared with nonsolid-fuel users, predominant coal users (OR = 1.64; 95% CI, 1.49-1.81), particularly coal users in Asia (OR = 4.93; 95% CI, 3.73-6.52), and predominant wood users in North American and European countries (OR = 1.21; 95% CI, 1.06-1.38) experienced higher risk of lung cancer. The results were similar in never-smoking women and other subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results are consistent with previous observations pertaining to in-home coal use and lung cancer risk, support the hypothesis of a carcinogenic potential of in-home wood use, and point to the need for more detailed study of factors affecting these associations.