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||HIF overexpression correlates with biallelic loss of fumarate hydratase in renal cancer: novel role of fumarate in regulation of HIF stability.
||Isaacs JS, Jung YJ, Mole DR, Lee S, Torres-Cabala C, Chung YL, Merino M, Trepel J, Zbar B, Toro J, Ratcliffe PJ, Linehan WM, Neckers L
||Individuals with hemizygous germline fumarate hydratase (FH) mutations are predisposed to renal cancer. These tumors predominantly exhibit functional inactivation of the remaining wild-type allele, implicating FH inactivation as a tumor-promoting event. Hypoxia-inducible factors are expressed in many cancers and are increased in clear cell renal carcinomas. Under normoxia, the HIFs are labile due to VHL-dependent proteasomal degradation, but stabilization occurs under hypoxia due to inactivation of HIF prolyl hydroxylase (HPH), which prevents HIF hydroxylation and VHL recognition. We demonstrate that FH inhibition, together with elevated intracellular fumarate, coincides with HIF upregulation. Further, we show that fumarate acts as a competitive inhibitor of HPH. These data delineate a novel fumarate-dependent pathway for regulating HPH activity and HIF protein levels.