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||Intakes of fruit, vegetables, and carotenoids and renal cell cancer risk: a pooled analysis of 13 prospective studies.
||Lee JE, MÃ¤nnistÃ¶ S, Spiegelman D, Hunter DJ, Bernstein L, van den Brandt PA, Buring JE, Cho E, English DR, Flood A, Freudenheim JL, Giles GG, Giovannucci E, HÃ¥kansson N, Horn-Ross PL, Jacobs EJ, Leitzmann MF, Marshall JR, McCullough ML, Miller AB, Rohan TE, Ross JA, Schatzkin A, Schouten LJ, Virtamo J, Wolk A, Zhang SM, Smith-Warner SA
||Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev
||Fruit and vegetable consumption has been hypothesized to reduce the risk of renal cell cancer. We conducted a pooled analysis of 13 prospective studies, including 1,478 incident cases of renal cell cancer (709 women and 769 men) among 530,469 women and 244,483 men followed for up to 7 to 20 years. Participants completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire at baseline. Using the primary data from each study, the study-specific relative risks (RR) were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards model and then pooled using a random effects model. We found that fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with a reduced risk of renal cell cancer. Compared with <200 g/d of fruit and vegetable intake, the pooled multivariate RR for >or=600 g/d was 0.68 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.54-0.87; P for between-studies heterogeneity = 0.86; P for trend = 0.001]. Compared with <100 g/d, the pooled multivariate RRs (95% CI) for >or=400 g/d were 0.79 (0.63-0.99; P for trend = 0.03) for total fruit and 0.72 (0.48-1.08; P for trend = 0.07) for total vegetables. For specific carotenoids, the pooled multivariate RRs (95% CIs) comparing the highest and lowest quintiles were 0.87 (0.73-1.03) for alpha-carotene, 0.82 (0.69-0.98) for beta-carotene, 0.86 (0.73-1.01) for beta-cryptoxanthin, 0.82 (0.64-1.06) for lutein/zeaxanthin, and 1.13 (0.95-1.34) for lycopene. In conclusion, increasing fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with decreasing risk of renal cell cancer; carotenoids present in fruit and vegetables may partly contribute to this protection.