||Lang Kuhs KA, Gonzalez P, Struijk L, Castro F, Hildesheim A, van Doorn LJ, Rodriguez AC, Schiffman M, Quint W, Lowy DR, Porras C, Delvecchio C, Katki HA, Jimenez S, Safaeian M, Schiller J, Solomon D, Wacholder S, Herrero R, Kreimer AR, Costa Rica Vaccine Trial Group, Herrero R, Alfaro M, Bratti MC, CortÃ©s B, Espinoza A, Estrada Y, GuillÃ©n D, JimÃ©nez SE, Morales J, Villegas L, Morera LA, Porras C, RodrÃguez AC, Hildesheim A, Kreimer AR, Lowy DR, Macklin N, Schiffman M, Schiller JT, Sherman M, Solomon D, Wacholder S, Freer E, Bonilla J, GarcÃa-PiÃ±eres A, Silva S, Atmella I, RamÃrez M, Pinto L, Kemp T, Eklund C, Hutchinson M, Sidawy M, Quint W, van Doorn LJ, Struijk L
||BACKGROUND: Little is known about the epidemiology of oral human papillomavirus (HPV) in Latin America. METHODS: Women (N = 5838) aged 22-29 in the control and vaccine arms of an HPV-16/18 vaccine trial in Costa Rica had oral, cervical, and anal specimens collected. Samples were tested for alpha mucosal HPV types (SPF10/LiPA25 version 1); a subset of oral samples (n = 500) was tested for cutaneous HPV types in the genera alpha, beta, gamma, mu, and nu. RESULTS: In the control arm (n = 2926), 1.9% of women had an oral alpha mucosal HPV detected, 1.3% had carcinogenic HPV, and 0.4% had HPV-16; similar patterns for non-16/18 HPV types were observed in the vaccine arm. Independent risk factors for any oral alpha mucosal HPV among women in the control arm included marital status (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-5.7 for single compared to married/living as married), number of sexual partners (AOR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.0-6.1 for â¥4 partners compared to 0-1 partners), chronic sinusitis (AOR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.5-6.7), and cervical HPV infection (AOR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.4-4.6). Detection of beta HPV was common (18.6%) and not associated with sexual activity. CONCLUSIONS: Unlike cutaneous HPV types, alpha mucosal HPV types were uncommon in the oral region and were predominately associated with sexual behavior. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00128661.