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||Family history and the risk of kidney cancer: a multicenter case-control study in Central Europe.
||Hung RJ, Moore L, Boffetta P, Feng BJ, Toro JR, Rothman N, Zaridze D, Navratilova M, Bencko V, Janout V, Kollarova H, Szeszenia-Dabrowska N, Mates D, Chow WH, Brennan P
||Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev
||An elevated familial relative risk may indicate either an important genetic component in etiology or shared environmental exposures within the family. Incidence rates of kidney cancer are particularly high in Central Europe, although no data were available on the familial aggregation or genetic background of kidney cancer in this region. We have, therefore, investigated the role of family history in first-degree relatives in a large multicenter case-control study in Central Europe. A total number of 1,097 cases of kidney cancer and 1,555 controls were recruited from 2000 to 2003 from seven centers in Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, and Russia. The risk of kidney cancer increased with the increasing number of relatives with history of any cancer [odds ratio (OR), 1.15; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.00-1.31 per affected relative], and this association seemed to be more prominent among subjects with young onset (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.09-2.20 per affected relative). Overall, the OR was 1.40 (95% CI, 0.71- 2.76) for the subjects who had at least one first-degree relative with kidney cancer after adjusting for tobacco smoking, body mass index, and medical history of hypertension, and this association was most apparent among subjects with affected siblings (OR, 4.09; 95% CI, 1.09-15.4). Based on the relative risk to siblings in our study population, we estimated that 80% of the kidney cancer cases are likely to occur in 20% of the population with the highest genetic risk, which indicate the importance of further investigation of genetic factors in cancer prevention for kidney cancer.