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||High frequency of CDKN2A alterations in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma from a high-risk Chinese population.
||Hu N, Wang C, Su H, Li WJ, Emmert-Buck MR, Li G, Roth MJ, Tang ZZ, Lu N, Giffen C, Albert PS, Taylor PR, Goldstein AM
||Genes Chromosomes Cancer
||Because previous studies have shown that loss of heterozygosity (LOH) is common on chromosome arm 9p in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and that genetic alterations in CDKN2A and CDKN2B on 9p are also common, we sought to determine whether LOH and these genetic alterations are related. We performed LOH studies on chromosome bands 9p21-p22 and searched for genetic alterations of CDKN2A and CDKN2B in 56 ESCCs from a high-risk Chinese population. Seventy-three percent of patients were found to have LOH at one or more loci on chromosome bands 9p21-p22, and LOH occurred more frequently in patients with a family history of upper gastrointestinal cancer than in those with a negative family history (P = 0.01, global permutation test). CDKN2A mutations (point mutations, deletions, insertions) were observed in 25% (14 of 56) of cases, and the LOH pattern was significantly different for individuals with and without a CDKN2A mutation (P = 0.01, global test). Three new single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 2 previously reported SNPs were identified in this group of patients. Intragenic allelic loss at polymorphic sites in CDKN2A was detected in 32% (18 of 56) of patients. Seven of the 56 (13%) cases exhibited what is considered classic evidence (n = 4) or showed potential evidence (n = 3) of biallelic inactivation. Only one alteration was observed in CDKN2B, G171A in the 5' untranslated region. Both mutation and intragenic allelic loss in CDKN2A appear to play a role in the development of ESCC.