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||Renal cell carcinoma, occupational pesticide exposure and modification by glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms.
||Karami S, Boffetta P, Rothman N, Hung RJ, Stewart T, Zaridze D, Navritalova M, Mates D, Janout V, Kollarova H, Bencko V, Szeszenia-Dabrowska N, Holcatova I, Mukeria A, Gromiec J, Chanock SJ, Brennan P, Chow WH, Moore LE
||This study investigated associations between occupational pesticide exposure and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk. To follow-up on a previous report by Buzio et al., we also considered whether this association could be modified by glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 (GSTM1 and GSTT1) genotypes. About 1097 RCC cases and 1476 controls from Central and Eastern Europe were interviewed to collect data on lifetime occupational histories. Occupational information for jobs held for at least 12 months duration was coded for pesticide exposures and assessed for frequency and intensity of exposure. GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene deletions were analyzed using TaqMan assays. A significant increase in RCC risk was observed among subjects ever exposed to pesticides [odds ratio (OR): 1.60; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00-2.55]. After stratification by genotypes, increased risk was observed among exposed subjects with at least one GSTM1 active allele (OR: 4.00; 95% CI: 1.55-10.33) but not among exposed subjects with two GSTM1 inactive alleles compared with unexposed subjects with two inactive alleles (P-interaction: 0.04). Risk was highest among exposed subjects with both GSTM1 and GSTT1 active genotypes (OR: 6.47; 95% CI: 1.82-23.00; P-interaction: 0.02) compared with unexposed subjects with at least one GSTM1 or T1 inactive genotype. In the largest RCC case-control study with genotype information conducted to date, we observed that risk associated with pesticide exposure was exclusive to individuals with active GSTM1/T1 genotypes. These findings further support the hypothesis that glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms can modify RCC risk associated with occupational pesticide exposure.