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||Frequent inactivation of the TP53 gene in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma from a high-risk population in China.
||Hu N, Huang J, Emmert-Buck MR, Tang ZZ, Roth MJ, Wang C, Dawsey SM, Li G, Li WJ, Wang QH, Han XY, Ding T, Giffen C, Goldstein AM, Taylor PR
||Clin Cancer Res
||Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most common fatal cancers worldwide, and north central China has some of the highest rates in the world. Previous studies from tumors in this area of China have shown high frequencies of allelic loss on chromosome 17p13-11, which includes the region where the TP53 gene is found. We examined 56 ESCC patients using single-strand conformation polymorphism and DNA sequencing to assess the frequency and spectrum of TP53 mutation and the association between allelic loss at microsatellite marker TP53 and TP53 mutations. Ninety-six % of cases were found to have at least one genetic alteration, including TP53 mutation (77%), allelic loss within the TP53 gene (73%), and/or loss of heterozygosity at the TP53 microsatellite marker (80%); 75% had two or more such alterations, including 59% with both a point mutation and an intragenic allelic loss ("two hits"). The majority of mutations observed were in exon 5, where the most common type of nucleotide substitution was a G:C-->A:T or C:G-->T:A transition, including half that occurred at CpG sites. Allelic loss was most commonly found in exon 4 but was very common in exon 5 as well. Taken together, the multiple genetic alterations of TP53 in this population at high risk for ESCC indicate that there is a very high degree of genetic instability in these tumors, that TP53 is a primary target for inactivation, and that this tumor suppressor gene plays a critical role in the carcinogenesis process for ESCC.