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||Risk factors for esophageal and gastric cancers in Shanxi Province, China: a case-control study.
||Gao Y, Hu N, Han XY, Ding T, Giffen C, Goldstein AM, Taylor PR
||OBJECTIVE: Smoking and alcohol consumption explain little of the risk for upper-gastrointestinal (UGI) cancer in China, where over half of all cases in the world occur. METHODS: We evaluated questionnaire-based risk factors for UGI cancers in a case-control study from Shanxi Province, China, including 600 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs), 599 gastric cardia adenocarcinomas (GCAs), 316 gastric noncardia adenocarcinomas (GNCAs), and 1514 age- and gender-matched controls. RESULTS: Ever smoking and ever use of any alcohol were not associated with risk of UGI cancer; only modest associations were observed between ESCC risk and highest cumulative smoking exposure, as well as GNCA risk and beer drinking. While several associations were noted for socioeconomic and some dietary variables with one or two UGI cancers, the strongest and most consistent relations for all three individual UGI cancers were observed for consumption of scalding hot foods (risk increased 150-219% for daily vs. never users) and fresh vegetables and fruits (risk decreased 48-70% for vegetables and 46-68% for fruits, respectively, for high vs. low quartiles). CONCLUSION: This study confirms the minor role of tobacco and alcohol in UGI cancers in this region, and highlights thermal damage as a leading etiologic factor.