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Title: Fatty acids found in dairy, protein and unsaturated fatty acids are associated with risk of pancreatic cancer in a case-control study.
Authors: Jansen RJ,  Robinson DP,  Frank RD,  Anderson KE,  Bamlet WR,  Oberg AL,  Rabe KG,  Olson JE,  Sinha R,  Petersen GM,  Stolzenberg-Solomon RZ
Journal: Int J Cancer
Date: 2014 Apr 15
Branches: NEB
PubMed ID: 24590454
PMC ID: PMC3942799
Abstract: Although many studies have investigated meat and total fat in relation to pancreatic cancer risk, few have investigated dairy, fish and specific fatty acids (FAs). We evaluated the association between intake of meat, fish, dairy, specific FAs and related nutrients and pancreatic cancer. In our American-based Mayo Clinic case-control study 384 cases and 983 controls frequency matched on recruitment age, race, sex and residence area (Minnesota, Wisconsin or Iowa, USA) between 2004 and 2009. All subjects provided demographic information and completed 144-item food frequency questionnaire. Logistic regression-calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were adjusted for age, sex, cigarette smoking, body mass index and diabetes mellitus. Significant inverse association (trend p-value < 0.05) between pancreatic cancer and the groupings (highest vs. lowest consumption quintile OR [95% CI]) was as follows: meat replacement (0.67 [0.43-1.02]), total protein (0.58 [0.39-0.86]), vitamin B12 (0.67 [0.44, 1.01]), zinc (0.48 [0.32, 0.71]), phosphorus (0.62 [0.41, 0.93]), vitamin E (0.51 [0.33, 0.78]), polyunsaturated FAs (0.64 [0.42, 0.98]) and linoleic acid (FA 18:2) (0.62 [0.40-0.95]). Increased risk associations were observed for saturated FAs (1.48 [0.97-2.23]), butyric acid (FA 4:0) (1.77 [1.19-2.64]), caproic acid (FA 6:0) (2.15 [1.42-3.27]), caprylic acid (FA 8:0) (1.87 [1.27-2.76]) and capric acid (FA 10:0) (1.83 [1.23-2.74]). Our study suggests that eating a diet high in total protein and certain unsaturated FAs is associated with decreased risk of developing pancreatic cancer in a dose-dependent manner, whereas fats found in dairy increase risk.